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  Silicon Valley, located on the San Francisco, California, peninsula, radiates

outward from Stanford University.  It is contained by the San Francisco Bay  on

the  east,  the  Santa  Cruz  Mountains on the west, and the Coast Range to the

southeast.  At the turn of the century, when fruit orchards  predominated,  the

area  was  known as the Valley of Heart's Delight.  Today, semiconductor chips,

made of silicon, are the principal product of the local  high-tech  industries.

It  has been said that an institution is but the lengthened shadow of one great

man.  Inasmuch as Silicon Valley is an institution, Fred Terman was such a man.

  In the 1930's, Professor Frederick Emmons  Terman  of  Stanford  University's

Department  of  Electrical  Engineering  was  concerned  by  the  lack  of good

employment opportunities in the area for Stanford engineering  graduates.    It

troubled  him  that  his  best  graduates  had  to go to the East Coast to find

employment, especially in the field of radio engineering.  His solution was  to

establish the then-new radio technology locally.

  One  of  his  first  steps  was to bring together two of his former students,

William Hewlett and David Packard, founders  of  the  Hewlett-Packard  Company.

After  World  War II, when Terman was dean of the School of Engineering, he was

successful in attracting research support from  a  number  of  sources.    This

amount  eventually  became  very  large,  especially  when compared with prewar

experiences.  Terman was thus able to attract bright new faculty and  students.

In  addition,  he  continued  to  encourage  his  graduates  to start their own

companies.  Faculty members soon joined inconsulting, investing, and, in  some

instances, founding new companies.

  Fred  Terman  became  a  legend  in  his own time.  Newspapers and a recently

published book have perpetuated a  myth  regarding  his  activities:  in  fact,

Terman  did  not  loan  William  Hewlett and David Packard money to start their

company.(Note 1)

The Early Days

  Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard  hung  around  the  lean  Stanford  electronics

laboratory  talking  about  ``someday'' having their own company.(Note 2)  Upon

graduation in 1934, however, Packard took a job  at  General  Electric  in  New

York,  while  Hewlett stayed on for a year of graduate study with Terman before

leaving for MIT, where he received a master's  degree.    Hewlett  returned  to

Stanford in 1936 to work on an electrical engineering degree.

  ``I  did a number of little things then to help get their business started,''

Terman said. ``A new  idea  in  electronics  (the  so-called  `resistance-tuned

oscillator')  turned up.  I told Bill, `It looks to me as if you could use this

to make an instrument.  It would be a lot simpler and cheaper than anything  on

the  market.    But  you'll  have  to  solve  a  couple  of problems to make it

function.'  Bill came up with an absolutely perfect solution.  He designed  and

built  an  audio  oscillator,  a  device  that  generates  signals  of  varying

frequencies.''(Note 3)  To remove serious instability, Hewlett  took  advantage

of  the  nonlinear resistance-temperature characteristic of a small light bulb.

The  addition  of  one  standard  and  inexpensive  component  turned  a  balky

laboratory curiosity into a reliable, marketable instrument.

  Money  was  a problem, but by great effort and a bit of luck, Terman was able

to get some money together for the  project,  including  a  $1,000  grant  from

Sperry Gyroscope.(Note 4)  ``We spent $500 for materials and $500 for Packard's

salary.  You didn't just get on a  plane  in  those  days  to  hop  across  the

country. In the autumn of 1938, Packard took a leave of absence from his job at

GE (which paid $110 a month) to come back here (for $55 a month).''(Note 5)

  Packard and his wife rented the lower floor of a duplex, and  the  two  young

entrepreneurs went to work in the small garage behind the house.  Hewlett moved

into a backyard cottage at the same address.  Packard  later  said  that  after

he'd  been  back  three  or four weeks, he knew Hewlett was right and that he'd

never return to the East.  Terman could always tell how the new young firm  was

doing: ``If the car was in the garage, there was no backlog, but if the car was

parked in the driveway, business was good.''(Note 6)  Their first  large  order

was  from  Walt  Disney Productions.  It was for four oscillators to be used in

making the motion picture Fantasia.

  That modest garage shop housed the beginnings of the Hewlett-Packard Company,

which  was  incorporated in January 1939.  Today, Hewlett-Packard is one of the

world's largest producers of computers and  electronic  measuring  devices  and

equipment.    It currently employs more than 80,000 people worldwide (22,000 in

Santa Clara County) and has sales of more than $6 billion per year.

A Fighter From the Start

  Born at the turn of the century, Terman was 10 years old  when  he  moved  to

Stanford  with  his parents.  The rolling foothills of the Santa Cruz mountains

were his playground, and he spent  his  early  teens  roaming  the  hills  near

Stanford  University  hunting  rabbits and looking for butterflies, turtles and

skunks.  He fished for bass in Felt Lake and learned to swim in  Lake  Lagunita

(on  the  Stanford campus).  Even as a youngster, Terman had an entrepreneurial

instinct; during the holidays, he would collect mistletoe in the hills and sell

it to Stanford faculty wives, who were deterred by poison oak.(Note 7)

  If  Terman  had  not  contracted  tuberculosis,  he probably never would have

joined the faculty at Stanford.  The stage was seta  young  man  received  his

A.B.  in  chemical engineering and an Engineer Degree in electrical engineering

from Stanford. He then headed East to MIT.  In those days, Terman recalled, ``a

serious  young  engineer  had  to  go  back  east to put spit and polish on his

education.''(Note 8)  He earned a Ph.D. in 1924 at MIT under  the  tutelage  of

Professor Vannevar Bush.

  At the age of 24, doctorate in hand, he returned home to the Stanford

  campus  to  spend  the  summer.  He planned to join the faculty at MIT in the

fall as a new assistant professor.  Instead, tragedy  struck;  he  developed  a

serious case of miliary tuberculosis.

  Terman  spent the next year in bed, with sandbags on his chest.  There was no

specific treatment for tuberculosis, and sandbags were used to  immobilize  his

chest.(Note 9)

  Two  doctors  abandoned his case at one point, declaring it hopeless, but two

other physicians fought to save him.  His appendix ruptured in the spring,  and

he developed eye trouble that was to bother him for several years thereafter.

  During  his  illness,  Terman  became  engrossed  once  more  in radio.  As a

teenager, he had been a  radio  ``ham''  and  enjoyed  experimenting  with  the

fascinating  new  ``wireless.''  By age 16 he had his own transmitter, which he

used to contact other amateurs as far away as Texas.  Lying in bed he  had  the

opportunity to read Morecroft's Principles of Radio Communication(Note 10) from

cover to cover.  He realized he could improve on Morecroft and set about to  do

so.      While   still  in  bed,  he  began  drafting  his  first  book,  Radio

Engineering,(Note 11) which was published  in  1932.    One  of  his  important

contributions  was the development of ``universal'' curves for representing the

selectivity of radio circuits.  This technique made possible a great savings in
time, and the approach was adopted in the textbooks that followed.(Note 12)

  Terman's  former  advisor,  Professor  Harris J. Ryan, the head of electrical

engineering at Stanford,  offered  Terman  a  half-time  teaching  job  at  the

university  beginning in the fall quarter of 1925.  Terman gratefully accepted.

He spent most of the year in bed, however, getting up only about  two  hours  a

day to go to class.

  While  convalescing, Terman had to learn to conserve his energy; he developed

strong work habits and an exceptional ability  to  concentrate.    His  friends

noted  that he could turn his attention on and off at will.  A friend once said

of him:  ``If there are 10 minutes to work on a manuscript, Terman is  able  to

make nine minutes and 50 seconds of it count.''(Note 13)

  Professor  Oswald  (Mike)  Villard  of  the Stanford School of Engineering, a

former student and protege of Terman's, once recalled:  ``Along  with  enormous

energy,  Terman  always had a clear idea of what he wanted to do and what to do

to meet his objectives.  He was  phenomenal  in  his  self-discipline.    After

spending  a  full  day  at  the  university,  he  would go home and work on his

books.''  When asked if he ever pursued a day without working, Terman  replied,

``Why no, how could you ask that question?''  Joseph M. Pettit, one of Terman's

best students, and currently president of Georgia Technological Institute, once

said:  ``Terman never took a year off to write a book.  Instead, he used to say

that if he wrote only a page per day, he would have a 365-page book by the  end

of the year.''  Terman worked seven days a week and felt no need for vacations.

``Why bother,'' he once remarked, ``when your work is more fun?''(Note 14)

  Terman's health gradually improved, and in 1927 he  was  appointed  assistant

professor  of  electrical  engineering.    In 1930 he was promoted to associate

professor, and in 1937, at the age of 37, he  became  professor  and  executive

head (now known as chair) of the Electrical Engineering Department.

Beating the Odds

  While  reminiscing  about  the  early  days in electrical engineering, Terman

said: ``The Depression years were more difficult than you can imagine.  We  had

nothing,  literally  nothing,  to work with.  An accident that burned out a few

vacuum tubes or damaged a meter would produce a crisis in the laboratory budget

for  a  month.  As an economy measure, I insisted that the laboratory meters be

protected by an elaborate system of fuses.   Students  often  chafed  at  this,

because  the  fuses  frequently got blown and it was always difficult to find a

replacement of the right  size.    But  the  meters  survived!''    The  prewar

electronics  laboratory  was  in  an attic under the eaves, over the electrical

machinery laboratory.  The roof of the attic leaked, and at times  these  leaks

became  quite  bad.   There was no money to repair the roofs, so they built big

wooden trays and lined them with tar paper and tar.  As the  trays  filled,  we

walked around them.  Our morale didn't suffer.  One winter Bill Hewlett added a

homey touch by stocking the trays with goldfish.''(Note 15)

  At a testimonial dinner for Terman, Edward Ginzton told about his own arrival

at  Stanford  during  the  depths  of the Depression.  Ginzton had graduated in

electrical engineering from the University of California at Berkeley  in  1936.

He  estimated that out of about 10,000 students who graduated that year, two or

three had found jobs.  Ginzton had  unsuccesssfully  interviewed  with  10  big

companies, after which he tried the utility companies.  He then started walking

the streets of San Francisco, where he was living, trying to find any job,  but

with  no  luck.  ``Finally, the fall came, and I was pretty desperate.  I heard

that Professor Joseph Carroll at Stanford  was  looking  for  an  assistant  in

high-voltage  engineering.    I  came to see him, and he talked to me for a few

minutes and realized that even though he had some positions available, I wasn't

the  right  person  for  his needs.'' Carroll sent him to Terman.  ``I'll never

forget the conversation I had with Fred.  I was discouraged about  life,  after

walking  the  streets of San Francisco, and in one hour's time Fred transformed

my  life  from  a  hopeless,  dismal  experience  to  one  of  excitement   and

anticipation  and  looking  forward  to  what  might  happen in the future.  He

offered me a research assistantship at $135 per quarter.  That made it possible

for  me  to  come to Stanford, and I did.  People complain that faculty members

don't have much time for  their  students,  that  they  are  always  traveling,

looking  for  contract  support, or whatever, but Fred spent endless hours with

us, his students.''

  Ginzton continued, ``Working for Fred was an unforgettable  experience.    He

taught  us  a lot, directly and indirectly.  He had meager resources within the

department, and only one professor, Karl Spangenberg, whom he had  brought  in.

There wasn't enough faculty to go around, so he encouraged us to create our own

seminars, to teach each other.  To be working for yourself, by yourself,  along

with Fred Terman, arguing with him about problems, helping him write his books

it was just an exciting period to  be  a  member  of  his  graduate  coursesan

unforgettable experience.''(Note 16)

  Terman  was  instrumental  in putting Ginzton in the right place.  As Villard

remarked, ``Terman could have kept him for himself, but  instead  he  sent  him

over  to  Professor  William  Hansen  in  physics.  It proved to be a stroke of

genius.'' Ginzton had the right combination of  organizational  and  scientific

abilities needed to manage technical projects and keep them moving forward.

  In  March 1939, Ginzton, while still a graduate student, became involved with

Hansen and Russell and Sigurd Varian in the development of the  klystron  tube.

He  received  his  Ph.D.  in  physics  in 1940 and spent the war years with the

klystron group at Sperry on Long Island.  In 1943, when the Varians were making

plans  to  start  their  own  company as soon as the war was over, they invited

Ginzton to join them.

  In her book, The Inventor and the Pilot, Dorothy Varian says:  ``One  of  the

reasons for asking Ed to join the group was to have him manage the company.  At

that time, he had two years of experience as a project manager  at  Sperry  and

was  very  successful  in working with the men in his department.  As plans for

the laboratory proceeded, his ideas on how to work with others,  the  kinds  of

business  incentives that might be desirable, and procedures for organizing the

company were important to the basic concepts later  incorporated  into  company

policy.''    She  continues:  ``As  the war neared its end in 1945, Ginzton was

offered an appointment as assistant professor  of  physics  at  Stanford.    He

discussed  this offer with other members of the group, for his proposed role as

manager was  a  crucial  one,  but  they  urged  him  to  accept  the  Stanford

appointment.    The  laboratory  was  still  a  year or more in the future, and

Ginzton agreed to serve as a  consultant  on  both  management  and  scientific

levels.''(Note 17)
  Varian  Associates  was  organized  in  1948. For the 11 years that followed,

Ginzton divided his time between  teaching  and  researching  at  Stanford  and

consulting  on  the  company's  technical  projects and serving on its board of

directors.  After Russell Varian's death in 1958, Ginzton  became  chairman  of

the  board and chief executive officer at Varian.  In 1961, he left Stanford to

devote his full attention to Varian.   While  continuing  as  chairman  of  the

board,  he  served  as  president  from  1964  to  1968  and remained the chief

executive officer until 1972.(Note 18)

A Tireless Worker

  Terman's friends describe him as a serious man who knew  what  he  wanted  to

accomplish  and  who  attended  to details with the utmost care.  He dressed in

conservative suits, wore old-fashioned  shoes,  and  always  drove  second-hand

cars.    As one friend commented, ``He was not a hale fellow well met,'' but he

did have a sense of humor and an appreciation of odd turns of events.   He  had

no  hobbies  other than a zestful mania for the doings of the Stanford football

team.  He was also noted for his keen intelligence. ``He was  always  three  or

four  sentences  ahead  of  everybody  else,''  an admirer once said.  ``He was

always alive and thinking about problems.  He would sometimes telephone late in

the evening, long after I'd buried myself in a martini.''(Note 19)

  In  1965,  at  a  dinner  honoring  Terman, David Packard reminisced:  ``As a

student, I became acquainted with Professor Terman before  I  enrolled  in  his

course.    Among  my hobbies was amateur radio and I spent a spare hour now and

then in the radio shack in the attic of the Engineering  Building.    Professor

Terman's  laboratories  were  next door.  Sometimes he would stop to chat for a

minute or two.  After several such brief visits, I was amazed to find  that  he

knew  a  great deal about me.  He knew my interests and abilities in athletics;

he knew what courses I had taken and what my grades had been; and he  had  even

looked up my high school record and my scores on the entrance examinations.

  ``At  that  time, Professor Terman had already developed a broad knowledge of

and a personal acquaintance with the  business  and  industry  related  to  his

academic  discipline.    He would often tell us about the corporate history, as

well as the current activities, of  all  the  important  firms  in  this  newly

developing  industry.   Although he had been teaching only a few years, many of

his former students were already making important contributions  in  their  new

jobs, and he kept in touch with them.

  ``The highlight of his course for me was the opportunity to visit some of the

laboratories and factories in this area.  Here, for the first time, I saw

  young  entrepreneurs  working  on  new  devices  in  firms  that   they   had

established.    One  day  Professor  Terman  remarked that many of the firms we

visited, and many other firms throughout the country in this  field,  had  been

founded  by  men with little or no formal education.  He suggested that someone

with a formal engineering education, and perhaps a  little  business  training,

might be even more successful.''(Note 20)

  During  the  early  1940's, Terman was called upon by Vannevar Bush to head a

big  defense  research  project  at  Harvard   University,   developing   radar

countermeasures.    The  experience  put  him  in  the mainstream of government

electronic research.  The success of the wartime work led him to  believe  that

the  government would not allow this work to disappear completely in peacetime.

He also felt that it  would  be  appropriate  for  the  government  to  support

fundamental  research  in  universities.  There was a widespread feeling at the

time that wartime applications had exhausted the supply of

  fundamental discoveries, and that it needed to be replenished.   Accordingly,

he  set out to expand Stanford's School of Engineering after he returned to the

university in 1946  as  the  dean  of  engineering.    In  this  capacity,  his

government contacts helped him to attract federal funding.(Note 21)

  As  a corporate board member of new young companies and a frequent speaker at

industry meetings, Terman took advantage of these opportunities to  spread  his

message.    In  his words: ``I encouraged our new, young faculty members to get

out and get acquainted with local industry and with the people in it  who  were

doing interesting and creative things.  Likewise, I encouraged industry to know

their university by getting acquainted with what was going on at Stanford as it

related to their own technical interests, and to make the acquaintance of those

university people who had similar interests.''(Note 22)

Stanford Industrial Park

  In the 1950's, the idea of building an industrial park arose.  The university

had  plenty  of  landover 8,000 acres(Note 23)but money was needed to finance

the University's rapid postwar growth.  The original bequest  of  his  farm  by

Leland  Stanford  prohibited  the  sale  of this land, but there was nothing to

prevent its being leased.  It turned out that long-term  leases  were  just  as

attractive  to  industry  as  outright ownership; thus, the Stanford Industrial

Park was founded.  The goal was to create a center of high technology close  to

a  cooperative  university.   It was a stroke of genius, and Terman, calling it

``our secret weapon,''  quickly  suggested  that  leases  be  limited  to  high

technology  companies  that  might  be  beneficial to Stanford.  In 1951 Varian

Associates signed a lease, and  in  1953  the  company  moved  into  the  first

building  in  the  park.    Eastman  Kodak,  General  Electric,  Preformed Line

Products,  Admiral  Corporation,  Shockley  Transistor  Laboratory  of  Beckman

Instruments, Lockheed, Hewlett-Packard, and others followed soon after.

  In  1955,  Terman  became  provost,  and  three  years  later  he became vice

president of Stanford.  He transformed the  university's  Chemistry  Department

into one of the best in the country.  Two outstanding chemists, William Johnson

from the University of Wisconsin, and Carl Djerassi, a University of  Wisconsin

graduate,  who  had  become  vice president for research at Mexico-based Syntex

Corporation, joined the faculty at Terman's behest.  By  bringing  Djerassi  to

Stanford,  Terman  set  in  motion  a  whole new chain of company formations in

biology and medicine.  Largely at Djerassi's urging, Syntex established a  U.S.

subsidiary  and  research  branch  in  the  Stanford Industrial Park.  Djerassi

brought Alejandro Zaffaroni,  Syntex's  executive  vice  president,  with  him.

Djerassi  and  Zaffaroni  were  responsible  for  the  formation  of  four  new


  Zoecon, Alza, and Dynapol.(Note 24)

  Professor John Linvill,  former  chair  of  electrical  engineering,  credits

Terman  with  attracting  him to Stanford.  Linvill said, ``He had a remarkable

way of keeping track of people.  He had contacts all over the place.  He knew I

had gone from MIT to Bell Laboratories to work on transistors, and he recruited

me in 1954 to set up a transistor program  at  Stanford.''(Note  25)    Linvill

started  his  own company with partial backing from the university in 1971.  He

is now codirector of the Center for Integrated Systems, a  research  center  on

campus,   funded  primarily  by  corporations,  that  does  basic  research  in

integrated systems.

  Terman encouraged William B. Shockley,  co-inventor  of  the  transistor,  to

return  to  his  hometown  of  Palo  Alto.  In 1956 he established the Shockley

Transistor Laboratory of  Beckman  Instruments  where  they  produced  Shockley

four-layer  diodes.  Shockley, who joinedthe Stanford faculty as a professor of

electrical engineering in 1963, said that the decision was  made  predominantly

because  of  the  Bay Area, the fact that there are more trees in the area than

there are in Southern California, and Stanford.(Note 26)

  However, eight of Shockley's bright young  electronics  specialists  left  in

1957 to establish Fairchild Semiconductor in Palo Alto.  This was the beginning

of the semiconductor industry; Fairchild became a corporate seedbed as no  less

than  38  new companies were started by former employees.  (Intel is one of the

most famous.)(Note 27)

  Professor Dean A. Watkins was director of the electron devices laboratory and

codirector   of  the  Stanford  Electronic  Laboratories.    Terman  recognized

qualities in Watkins that he knew would make him  a  good  businessman.    When

people  from  the  Kern County Land Company let it be known that they wanted to

invest in a military electronics enterprise based on  microwave  tubes,  Terman

told  them  he  had just the right man and introduced Watkins to them.(Note 28)

That was the beginning of Watkins-Johnson, which was founded in  December  1957

by  Watkins  and  H.  Richard  Johnson.    Watkins  continued on the faculty of

electrical engineering as a professor until 1964, and then as a lecturer  until


  Johnson was also a lecturer in electrical engineering from 1958 until 1968.

  The  atmosphere  for  growth became contagious; Terman continued to encourage

his graduates to start their own companies, and faculty  members  continued  to

participate in the consulting, investing, and founding of new companies.

The Honors Cooperative Program

  Early  in  the  1950's,  at the close of the Korean conflict, the managers of

several local firms asked Terman to permit their employees  to  continue  their

education  on  a part-time basis.  In 1953, Terman decided that it was possible

to accept some additional graduate students without increasing  costs  greatly.

Companies in the area were notified that they could send qualified employees to

regular day-time classes; the workers would  be  released  from  their  company

duties  during this time.  The response from industry was dramatic, and classes

were quickly overloaded.  Tuition covered less than half of the actual cost  to

educate  a student.  The result was overflowing classrooms and the underpayment

of costs.

  To solve the problem of maintaining the  quality  of  education,  Termanthen

Dean of the School of Engineeringoriginated the Honors Cooperative Program, in

the autumn quarter of 1954.  Under  this  program,  four  companies  (Sylvania,

Hewlett-Packard,  SRI  International,  and General Electric) agreed to select a

number of qualified employees for enrollment in graduate work at Stanford.  The

companies  signed  five-year  agreements  specifying that they would pay double

tuition for each student.  This arrangement essentially covered the  full  cost

of  educating  the  Honors  Cooperative  students.    The  matching  funds were

transferred to the departments in which the students  were  studying  and  were

used  to hire additional professors to handle the increased teaching load.(Note



  Once when fruit orchards predominated, it was called the  Valley  of  Heart's

Delight;  it  is now called Silicon Valley.  Today semiconductor chips, made of

silicon, are the principal product of the local high-tech industries.  The term

Silicon  Valley  was  used  occasionallymostly by easterners who would mention

making a trip to Silicon Valley, until 1971 when it was popularized in a series

of  articles,  ``Silicon  Valley  USA,''  written by Don Hoefler for Electronic

News.  Quite likely it was the first time the term was used in print.(Note 30)

  Silicon Valley radiates outward  from  Stanford  Universityto  the  adjacent

cities  of  Palo Alto and Menlo Park; northwest to Redwood City and San Carlos;

southeast to Los Altos,  Mountain  View,  Sunnyvale,  Cupertino,  Santa  Clara,

Campbell  and  San  Jose;  and  is  gradually expanding to Alviso, Milpitas and

Morgan Hill.  It is contained by the San Francisco Bay on the east, Santa  Cruz

Mountains on the west and the Coast Range to the southeast.

  Approximately 2000 electronics and information technology companies,(Note 31)

along with numerous service and supplier firms, are clustered in the area.  The

valley  contains  the  densest concentration of innovative industry that exists

anywhere  in  the  world,  including  companies  that  are  leaders   in   such

fast-expanding  fields  as  computers,  semiconductors,  lasers,  fiber optics,

robotics, medical instrumentation,  magnetic  recording,  and  educational  and

consumer electronics.  Some are branches or subsidiaries of bigger corporations

that felt obliged to establish research facilities in  the  area,  even  though

their  headquarters  may be located elsewhere. Most of the new industry is home

grown, however.(Note 32)

  Terman once said, ``When we set  out  to  create  a  community  of  technical

scholars  in  Silicon  Valley, there wasn't much here and the rest of the world

looked awfully big.  Now a lot of the rest of the  world  is  here.''(Note  33)

Terman had long believed that the academic community and the business community

could and should work together for the benefit of both.(Note 34)   Once  Terman

had  attained  a position of influence and power at Stanford, he practiced (and

preached) a principle that he called ``steeples of excellence.''  Its  cardinal

rule  was  to  go for the best.  ``Academic prestige depends on high but narrow

steeples  of  academic  excellence;  it  is  not  possible  to  cover  all  the

bases.''(Note 35)

  Terman,  who  died  in 1982, never took credit for the development of Silicon

Valley,(Note 36) but it is interesting to note in retrospect that a  young  man

who  fell  ill  at  the  age  of 24, and who assumed that he would be unable to

fulfill his destiny in the East, instead brought the world to his doorstep.

  It has been said that an institution is the lengthened  shadow  of  one  man.

Inasmuch as Silicon Valley is an institutionFred Terman is that manthe Father

of Silicon Valley.


  (1)William Hewlett, telephone interview, November 1984.

  (2)Sandra Blakeslee, Stanford University News Service, 3 October 1977.


  (4)George F. Climo, Historian,  Public  Relations  Services,  Hewlett-Packard

Company, telephone interview, February 1982.



  (7)``Fred  Terman's  favorite  stories recalled by John Halamka, who lives in

his basement,'' Campus Report, 12 January 1983.


  (9)Frederick W. Terman, telephone interview, November 1984.

  (10)J. H. Morecroft, Principles of Radio Communication, Wiley, New York.

  (11)F. E. Terman, Radio Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1932.

  (12)Oswald (Mike) Villard,  interview,  Sunnyvale,  California,  11  November




  (15)Blakeslee; Villard; Hewlett.

  (16)``Terman  Dinner,'' concluding remarks, 5 May 1977 (provided by Professor


  (17)Dorothy Varian, The Inventor and the Pilot, 1983.

  (18)Varian Associates Magazine, Volume 19, Number 1, January/February 1984

  (19)Blakeslee; Villard.

  (20)David Packard, ``Address honoring Dr. Terman,'' 31 May 1965.

  (21)Gene Bylinsky, Fortune Magazine, ``California's Great Breeding Ground for

Industry,'' June 1974.

  (22)F.   E.   Terman,   ``Address  delivered  at  WEMA  (Western  Electronics

Manufacturers Association) 30th Anniversary Dinner,'' 10 November 1973.

  (23)Andrew Doty, Stanford University  Office  of  Public  Affairs,  Stanford,

California,  telephone  interview,  November  1984.   The original grant by the

Stanford's plus accumulated land totaled 8,847 acres; since then 667 acres have

been condemned for easements, leaving 8,180 acres.


  (25)John  Linvill,  interview  Stanford  University, Stanford, California, 26

July 1984.

  (26)William B. Shockley, telephone interview, 24 May 1985.



  (29)Stanford Engineering News, School of  Engineering,  Stanford  University,

No. 92, January 1974.

  (30)Don  C. Hoefler, publisher of Microelectronics News, telephone interview,

9 January 1985.   Hoefler  was  choosing  a  name  for  an  article  about  the

semiconductor  industry  that he was writing for Electronic News. Ralph Vaerst,

then president of Ion Equipment, suggested Silicon Valley.  Hoefler  named  his

article,  ``Silicon  Valley  USA;''  it  was  a  series  that  ran for 3 weeks,

beginning 11 January 1971.

  (31)J. Parietti, American Electronics Association,  telephone  interview,  29

May 1985.




  (35)Bob Beyers, Stanford University News Service, 19 December 1982.

  (36)F. W. Terman.

Last Updated: 20 Mar 95