The Index:
1. Internet Before World Wide Web
Internet before World Wide Web - The First 130 Years: Atlantic cable, Sputnick, ARPANET,"Information Superhighway", ...
2. World Wide Web as a Side Effect of Particle Physics Experiments.
World Wide Web was born in CERN: the most impressive results of large scale scientific efforts appeared far away from the main directions of those efforts
3. Next Crossroad of World Wide Web History
World Wide Web as a NextStep of PC Revolution ... from Steven P. Jobs to Tim Berners-Lee
4. Birth of the World Wide Web, Browser Wars, ...
Birth of the Web, Tim Berners-Lee, R. Cailliau, Marc Andreessen, Browser Wars, ...
5. Early History of Hypertext
Hypertext Foundation of the World Wide Web: Vannevar Bush's hyperlink concept, Ted Nelson coins the word Hypertext, ...
6. "Living History" of Hypertext.
Hypertext Saga of Theodor Holm Nelson: The Fate of Thinking Person in Silicon Valley ...
7. "Xanadu" Plan
The Nelson's Xanadu Plan to build a better World Wide Web
8. Growth of the Internet: Statistics
Statistics of the Internet & Worl Wide Web: Hosts, Domains, WebSites, Traffic, ...
9. Conclusion
What is the nature of World Wide Web?
10 Prehistory of the Internet
The Ancient Roads of Telecommunications & Computers
11 They said it ...
People Wrote About This Book

 

History of the Internet. We all need it. We all want it. But how did it happen in the first place? Gregory Gromov provides a ... comprehensive ... history of the Worldwide Web before it was the Net we all know and love. By Matthew Holt. 

 NetworkWorld. June, 1997

____ 

For a history of the Internet readers should consult Gregory Gromov's The Roads and Crossroads of the Internet's History.

Humanities Computing Unit of Oxford University,
Oxford University,  UK

___

The Roads and Crossroads of the Internet's History. By Gregory R. Gromov. A critically acclaimed site for a comprehensive history of the Internet.

The University of Texas, System Digital Library.

____

Gregory  Gromov provides an impressionistic overview in "The Roads and Crossroads of Internet's History," ... with a particular concentration on the development of  hypertext and the Web.

Current  literature of the online community   by Eron Main, Faculty of Information Studies, 

University of Toronto, Canada 

____

The Roads and Crossroads of Internet History by Gregory Gromov ... can be a great resource where an informed ‘Net surfer can come and let hypertext do the walking and the inventors of the ‘Net themselves do the talking.

by Kelly Ward, Public Health Library, 
University of California, Berkeley

____

Gregory R. Gromov’s The Roads and Crossroads of Internet History is probably the history that most students will enjoy as it is sprinkled liberally with files that illustrate his points.

Commencing with Internet pre-history work your way through 9 sections to read about the web, browser wars, and Xanadu to name a few topics. It is a long essay but extremely interesting.

The Australian National University. Faculty of Art,  Canberra

____


... This is a hypertext ... It is written as a kind of mosaic rather than as a straight narrative, including email questions and answers, fragments of interviews, and the like. It focuses primarily on the Web and hypertext over the Internet.

by  M. C. Morgan  College of Arts and Letters, 

Bemidji State University, MN, USA

____

This is an entertaining (if potentially  confusing) account of Net history, part of a large on-line hyperbook ...  this site will provide some fascinating insights and connections between events and people.

Open Learning Agency : learning resources to support the K-12 education system in British Columbia, Canada

___

The Roads and Crossroads of Internet 's History by Gregory R. Gromov... is an excellent history of the internet and a good example of a "web document." ... You also should experience what "hypertext" is and why this experience is more like exploring than reading...

by Robert Melczarek  Introduction for EDU 606  School of Education
Troy State University, Dothan. USA

___

The Roads and Crossroads of Internet History - Gregory Gromov's comprehensive and fascinating overview of the philosophy and history of the Internet.

Cource  STS 3700B 6.0: “History of Computing and Information Technolog” by Luigi M Bianchi. School of Analitical Studies & Information Technology. Science and Technology Studies

York University, Canada

____


Finally, an entertaining and eye-catching approach to Internet history is Gregory R. Gromov's History of Internet and WWW: The Roads and Crossroads of Internet History. This site is worth visiting, as much for its unorthodox approach using dazzling visuals and hypertext style as its content. By Deborah Husted Koshinsky and Rick McRae, University Libraries

State University of New York at Buffalo

____

The Roads and Crossroads of Internet History by Gregory Gromov  ...  possibly not the first place in the pool where a non-swimmer should take the plunge, this colorful and quirky site can be a great resource where an informed ‘Net surfer can come and let hypertext do the walking and the inventors of the ‘Net themselves do the talking.

"Nettalk : A Brief History of the 'Net" by Kelly Ward

The Bulletin. Special Libraries Association, San Francisco Bay region. The School of Information Management and Systems (SIMS) -- a graduate program at the University of California, Berkeley.

___


This is one of the Great Classic Websites. It's a history of the Internet and what led up to it, told in hypertext, both eloquently and chaotically, as strange in its own way as the Mel Brooks movie, History of the World, Part One. But it's one [REDACTED} of a lot more accurate than the Brooks movie. All Internet users, even those of you who just signed up for Web-TV or AOL last week and are still fumbling around, should check out this site.

When you jump into this online story, make sure you have a couple of hours free. It takes that long to read. Imagine a collaborative writing  project that tells you more than you ever wanted to know (and more than probably thought there was to tell) about the Internet, starting with the laying of the first telegraph cable across the Atlantic in 1858 (which was NOT a success, BTW).

You'll learn why the WWW Consortium [W3C] is based at a physics lab in Switzerland called CERN, instead of at a computer research center where you'd logically expect it to be, and why CERN doesn't even stand for the lab's real name -- in either English or French, along with lots of other neat factoids that'll come in handy if you ever find yourself playing Trivial Pursuit: The Internet Edition.

by  Robin Miller
Best High-Tech Sights on the Net

__

 For anyone who has ever wondered how and why the Internet was created comes this extensive essay,  "The Roads and Crossroads of Internet's History." With this document, users can follow the development of the Net from its early stages as a military communication system to the multimedia extravaganza we know today.

Cource Education 2751: "Power and Communication Technology" by Bridget A. Ricketts

Prince of Wales Collegiate, Newfoundland Canada

__

Gregory R. Gromov's version is a fun to read and thoughtful look into the history of the Internet and the WWW.

USM - Professional Development Center
The Maine Science and Technology Foundation. USA

___


an excellent 9-part review of the Internet's history and its relationship with the information revolution . Very informative and quite amusing at times too!

CADVision Development Corporation. USA

 
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Roads and Crossroads of the Internet History
            by Gregory Gromov

               Click here to download a mobile friendly .PDF version of this History.


 
prev     Chapter #2 - Web as a Side Effect of Physics Experimentsnext_

 
 

    Chapter 2. World Wide Web as a Side Effect of Particle Physics Experiments.

... Too often we're inclined to perceive the world wide web as strictly an American phenomenon, and this in spite of the fact that we all know the origins of the web are European. It's amazing to us how little emphasis has come to be placed on the world wide aspect of the world wide web.

April 2, 1996.   blow

 

The history of every great invention is based on a lot of pre-history. In the case of the World-Wide Web, there are two lines to be traced: the development ofhypertext, or the computer-aided reading of electronic documents, and the development of the Internet protocols which made the global network possible.
by Robert Cailliau, Text of a speech delivered at the launching of the European branch of the W3 Consortium, Paris, November 1995

See also: Robert Cailliau:  "How It Really Happened "

 

As  usually...

              in the beginning was - chaos.


In the same way that the theory of high energy physics interactions was itself in a chaotic state up until the early 1970's, so was the so-called area of "Data Communications" at CERN. The variety of different techniques, media and protocols used was staggering; open warfare existed between many manufacturers' proprietary systems, various home-made systems (including CERN's own "FOCUS" and "CERNET"), and the then rudimentary efforts at defining open or international standards...

The Stage is Set - early 1980's.

To my knowledge, the first time any "Internet Protocol" was used at CERN was during the second phase of the STELLA Satellite Communication Project, from 1981-83, when a satellite channel was used to link remote segments of two early local area networks (namely "CERNET", running between CERN and Pisa, and a Cambridge Ring network running between CERN and Rutherford Laboratory). This was certainly inspired by the ARPA IP model, known to the Italian members of the STELLA collaboration (CNUCE, Pisa) who had ARPA connections...

TCP/IP Introduced at CERN.

In August, 1984 I wrote a proposal to the SW Group Leader, Les Robertson, for the establishment of a pilot project to install and evaluate TCP/IP protocols on some key non-Unix machines at CERN including the central IBM-VM mainframe and a VAX VMS system....

By 1990 CERN had become the largest Internet site in Europe and this fact, as mentioned above, positively influenced the acceptance and spread of Internet techniques both in Europe and elsewhere...

The Web Materializes.

A key result of all these happenings was that by 1989 CERN's Internet facility was ready to become the medium within which Tim Berners-Lee would create the World Wide Web with a truly visionary idea. In fact an entire culture had developed at CERN around "distributed computing", and Tim had himself contributed in the area of Remote Procedure Call (RPC), thereby mastering several of the tools that he needed to synthesize the Web such as software portability techniques and network and socket programming. But there were many other details too, like how simple it had become to configure a state of the art workstation for Internet use (in this case Tim's NeXT machine which he showed me while he was setting it up in his office), and how once on the Internet it was possible to attract collaborators to contribute effort where that was lacking at CERN.

By Ben M. Segal / CERN PDP-NS / April, 1995


The WWW's Baker:   Who is this Guy?

bensegal.gif (9393 bytes)  Ben Segal:   I'm British, graduated in Physics and Mathematics in 1958 from Imperial College, London, then worked for the UK Atomic Energy Authority and later in the USA for the Detroit Edison Company on fast breeder reactor development. I've been at CERN since 1971, after finishing my Ph.D. at Stanford University in Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering...
Except for a sabbatical in 1977, when I worked at Bell Northern Research in Palo Alto on a PABX development project (and encountered UNIX for the first time), CERN has kept me pretty busy on five main projects , including the coordinated introduction of the Internet Protocols at CERN beginning in 1985.

What does it mean: CERN?

We've received the email-question from one of our readers:

      Date: Sun, 28 Jul 1996 13:17:23 -0700
      From: ... Jin.Whitt ....@ ... on.net>
      Subject: CERN

      You give no explanation of the acronym CERN beyond "European Laboratory for Particle Physics". Could you insert the correct name somewhere?

... forwarded it to Ben and have got the following answer :

      The acronym "CERN" stands for "Centre European pour la Recherche Nucleaire", the original French name of the organization.
      More recently it was felt that "Nucleaire" implied reactor or even military applications, so the name of the organization was changed to the ""European Laboratory for Particle Physics" but the acronym was left as it was.

      Confusing, isn't it?

        ben@dxcern.cern.ch (Ben Segal)


      Why the WWW was born in CERN:

      CERN is now the world's largest research laboratory with over 50%of all the active particle physicists in the world taking part in over 120 different research projects. 3000 staff members, 420 young students and fellows supported by the Organization and 5000 visiting physicists, engineers, computer experts and scientists specializing in a variety of front-line technologies are collaborating with CERN from 40 countries and 371 scientific institutions .

      Binding together the creativity of so many different nationalities, backgrounds and fields of research...

      ... has established CERN as the global centre for High Energy Physics and set a precedent in scientific collaboration which has been followed by Europe's other fundamental research organizations (ESO, ESA, EMBL, ESRF)...

      "Scientific research lives and flourishes in an atmosphere of freedom - freedom to doubt, freedom to enquire and freedom to discover. These are the conditions under which this new laboratory has been established"; these were the words written in 1954 by Sir Ben Lockspeiser, first President of the CERN Council. This is the atmosphere in which CERN has flourished for 40 years and in which the Organization looks forward to continuing successfully into the future.

Web as a "Side Effect"
of  the 40 years of  Particle Physics Experiments.

Below is a fragment from  the email discussions with Ben Segal:

Ben,

It happened many times during history of science that the most impressive results of large scale scientific efforts appeared far away from the main directions of those efforts.

I hope you agree that Web was a side effect of the CERN's scientific agenda.
After the World War 2 the nuclear centers of almost all developed countries became the places with the highest concentration of talented scientists.
For about four decades many of them were invited to the international CERN's Laboratories.
So specific kind of the CERN's intellectual "entire culture" (as you called it) was constantly growing from one generation of the scientists and engineers to another.
When the concentration of the human talents per square foot of the CERN's Labs reached the critical mass, it caused an intellectual explosion

The Web, -- crucial point of human's history, was born...
Nothing could be compared to it.
You wrote the best about it: "synergy, serendipity and coincidence"...

We cant imagine yet the real scale of the recent shake, because there has not been so fast growing multi-dimension social-economic processes in human history...

    Gregory Gromov

P.S. It is quite remarkable that "Highlights of CERN History: 1949 - 1994" do not have a word about Web. So, it looks like a classic side effect that normally is not be mentioned at the main text of official record...



     Date: Thu, 23 May 1996 08:47:54 +0200
     From: ben@dxcern.cern.ch (Ben Segal)

     Subject: Gregory, here are some CERN...

      >I hope you agree that Web was a side effect of the CERN's scientific agenda.

      Absolutely! (And it was not 100% appreciated by the masters of CERN, the physicists and accelerator builders, that such a "side effect" with world shaking consequences was born in the obscure bit of the organization that handled computing, a relatively low-status activity...).

        Ben Segal

 
prev      Chapter #2 - Web as a Side Effect of Physics Experiments next_
The Index:
1. Internet Before World Wide Web
Internet before World Wide Web - The First 130 Years: Atlantic cable, Sputnick, ARPANET,"Information Superhighway", ...
2. World Wide Web as a Side Effect of Particle Physics Experiments.
World Wide Web was born in CERN: the most impressive results of large scale scientific efforts appeared far away from the main directions of those efforts
3. Next Crossroad of World Wide Web History
World Wide Web as a NextStep of PC Revolution ... from Steven P. Jobs to Tim Berners-Lee
4. Birth of the World Wide Web, Browser Wars, ...
Birth of the Web, Tim Berners-Lee, R. Cailliau, Marc Andreessen, Browser Wars, ...
5. Early History of Hypertext
Hypertext Foundation of the World Wide Web: Vannevar Bush's hyperlink concept, Ted Nelson coins the word Hypertext, ...
6. "Living History" of Hypertext.
Hypertext Saga of Theodor Holm Nelson: The Fate of Thinking Person in Silicon Valley ...
7. "Xanadu" Plan
The Nelson's Xanadu Plan to build a better World Wide Web
8. Growth of the Internet: Statistics
Statistics of the Internet & Worl Wide Web: Hosts, Domains, WebSites, Traffic, ...
9. Conclusion
What is the nature of World Wide Web?
10 Prehistory of the Internet
The Ancient Roads of Telecommunications & Computers
11 They said it ...
People Wrote About This Book

Silicon Valley News


  Internet History & World Wide Web, Chapter # 2 http://www.netvalley.com/cgi-bin/intval/net_history.pl?chapter=2

Copyright © 1995-2011 Gregory Gromov
 
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